A lithium battery is a type of battery that uses a lithium metal or a lithium alloy as a negative electrode material and uses a non-aqueous electrolyte solution, what was invented by Edison. The reaction equation for battery operation is:
Li + MnO2 = LiMnO2 .
The reaction is a oxidation-reduction reaction and discharge. In the past, lithium batteries have not been used for a long time because of the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, lithium batteries have not been used for a long time because of the high processing, storage, use and environmental requirements. With the development of modern science, lithium batteries have now become mainstream batteries. On February 22, 2016, ICAO announced that lithium batteries were prohibited from being checked by baggage.
Lithium batteries are generally divided into two categories: Non-rechargeable and rechargeable. Non-rechargeable batteries, that is what we often say disposable batteries, like lithium-manganese batteries (3V) and lithium-iron batteries (1.5V); Rechargeable batteries, that is, secondary batteries, like lithium-ion batteries (3.7V). Strictly speaking, it’s distinguish according to the material system , or if accurate, you can distinguish by voltage.
Alkaline batteries are the most successful high-capacity dry batteries and are one of the most cost-effective batteries available today. The alkaline battery is manganese dioxide as the positive electrode, zinc as the negative electrode, and potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte. It is superior in characteristics to carbon batteries and has a large capacitance. The chemical equation is:
Zn+MnO2 + H2O = Mn(OH) 2 + ZnO .
The alkaline battery is structurally used in the opposite electrode structure of the ordinary battery, which increases the relative area between the positive and negative electrodes. Moreover, the ammonium chloride solution and the zinc chloride solution are replaced by a highly conductive potassium hydroxide solution, and the negative electrode zinc is also changed from a sheet shape to a granular shape, thereby increasing the reaction area of the negative electrode.
In addition, the use of high-performance electrolytic manganese powder, so the electrical performance can be greatly improved, in general, the same type of alkaline battery is 3-7 times the capacity and discharge time of ordinary batteries. At low temperatures, there is a greater difference in performance. Alkaline batteries are more suitable for high-current continuous discharge and high-demand operating voltage applications, especially for cameras, flashlights, razors, electric toys, CD players, large Power remote control, wireless mouse, keyboard, etc.